# Functional Skills: Multiplication

## Functional Skills: Multiplication Revision

**Multiplication**

**Multiplication** means “how many lots of”. The **2** methods used to multiply large numbers without a calculator are the **column method** and the **grid method**. If you have a calculator, then multiplication problems are usually straightforward, you just need to know when to multiply.

Make sure you are happy with the following topics before continuing.

**When to Multiply**

You can recognise questions that require **multiplication** in two ways:

- Questions that use the word “
**multiply**” or “**times**“, or similar words like “**multiplication**“. - Questions that use the times sign, \times.

**Method 1: Column Method**

**Example:** Calculate 281 \times 23

**Step 1: **Write the two numbers in the multiplication **above each other**, with the bigger one on top. Write the values so that the units, the 10s, the 100s etc. all line up in the correct column.

**Step 2: Multiply** the final digit from the bottom number with every digit from the top number, in turn, **and write the results underneath** from right to left, making sure to carry forward when the values go above 10.

3\times1 = 3,Â Â 3\times8=24,Â Â 3\times2 = 6

**Step 3:** The second digit from the right is the tens digit. For this, write a 0 underneath the previous step’s working so that everything is shifted to the left by one space.

Then, **multiply** this digit by every digit from the top number, **and write the results underneath** the last step from right to left.

**Step 4: Add up** the final numbers using column method for addition, and write the results under another line.

Therefore,

281 \times 23 = \textcolor{black}{6463}

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**Method 2: Grid Method**

**Example:** Calculate 213 \times 74

**Step 1: Split each number** into units, 10s, 100s etc. and write **each part**Â of one number along the **left side of the grid**, and **each part**Â of the other number across the **top**.

\textcolor{red}{2} = \textcolor{red}{200}

\textcolor{blue}{1} = \textcolor{blue}{10}

\textcolor{limegreen}{3} = \textcolor{limegreen}{3}

\textcolor{maroon}{7} = \textcolor{maroon}{70}

\textcolor{purple}{4} = \textcolor{purple}{4}

**Step 2: **Fill in each **square of the grid** by individually **multiplying** each part of one number by each part of the other number.

**Step 3:** Finally, **add up **all answers from the grid to get the final answer:

14000+700+210+800+40+12= \textcolor{black}{15762}

**Multiplying on a Calculator**

The above methods are for **multiplying** without a **calculator**. **Multiplying** with a** calculator** is much simpler. You press each digit individually for the first number, then the** times** symbol which looks like this: \times, then each digit individually for the second number, then equals.

**Example:Â Multiply** 23 and 571 using a **calculator**.

Press 2 then 3 then \times then 5 then 7 then 1 then =

You should see a result of 13133.

**Multiplying by \boldsymbol{10}, \boldsymbol{100} and \boldsymbol{1000}**

- To
**multiply**by \textcolor{red}{\boldsymbol{10}}, you move the decimal point**one**place to the right. - To
**multiply**by \textcolor{red}{\boldsymbol{100}}, you move the decimal point**two**places to the right. - To
**multiply**by \textcolor{red}{\boldsymbol{1000}}, you move the decimal point**three**places to the right.

This rule can be used for multiplying by 10000, 100000..., just move the decimal point to the right the same amount as the amount of **zeros **after the 1.

**Remember:** For whole numbers the decimal point doesn’t look like it’s there, but it is. For example 25 can be written as 25.0

**Square Numbers**

**Multiplying **a number by itself is called **squaring **a number, for instance 6 squared =6\times6=36

Often **squared **numbers are written using a small 2 – e.g. 6^2

For more difficult squares, like 19^2, if you don’t have a calculator you may have to use the multiplication methods described above, or break the multiplication down into smaller chunks.

**Example 1: Multiplication Problems**

Aimee buys \textcolor{blue}{60} boxes of pencils for her school. Each box contains \textcolor{red}{40} pencils, with each pencil costing 15p.

How much does she spend on pencils altogether?

**[2 marks]**

We need to calculate the cost for one box of pencils:

Cost of 1 box = \textcolor{red}{40} \times 15 = 600p

Then multiply by the number of boxes, 60, to find the total cost:

Total cost = 600 \times \textcolor{blue}{60} = 36000p =\textcolor{blue}{Â£360}

**Example 2: Multiplying by \boldsymbol{10}, \boldsymbol{100} and \boldsymbol{1000}**

Calculate:

**a)** 5.7\times100

**b)** 42\times10

**c)** 13.1\times1000

**[3 marks]**

**Example 3: ****Square Numbers**

Calculate:

**a)** 13^2

**b)** 22^2

**[2 marks]**

a) 13^2=13\times13=10\times13+3\times13=130+39=169

b) 22^2=22\times20+22\times2=440+44=484

## Functional Skills: Multiplication Example Questions

**Question 1:** Calculate 45 \times 619, without the use of a calculator.

**[3 marks]**

Here, we will use the long multiplication method, multiplying 619 by 5 and then by 40, and then adding the results:

\begin{array}{r}619\\\times45\\\hline3095\\+24760 \\\hline27855 \end{array}

**Question 2:** Calculate 52 \times 31, without the use of a calculator.

**[3 marks]**

Here, we will use the long multiplication method, multiplying 52 by 1 and then by 30, and then adding the results:

\begin{array}{r}\begin{array}{r}52\\\times31\\\hline52\\+1560\\\hline 1612\end{array}\end{array}

**Question 3:** Mark buys 15 packs of paving slabs for his drive. Each pack contains 8 paving slabs. The cost of each paving slab is Â£9.

How much does mark spend on paving slabs in total?

**[2 marks]**

We need to calculate the cost for one pack of paving slabs:

Cost of 1 pack = 8 \times Â£9 = Â£72

Then multiply by the number of packs, 15, to find the total cost:

Total cost = 15 \times Â£72 = Â£1080

**Question 4:Â **Calculate the following:

**a)** 5.61\times100

**b)** 13\times10000

**c)** 0.73\times10

**[3 marks]**

a) Multiplying by 100 means we move the decimal point two places to the right.

So

5.61\times100=561

b) Multiplying by 10000 means we move the decimal point four places to the right.

So

13\times10000=130000

c) Multiplying by 10 means we move the decimal point one place to the right.

So

0.73\times10=7.3

**Question 5:Â **Calculate the following:

**a)** 8^2

**b)** 11^2

**c)** 26^2

**[3 marks]**

a) 8^2=8\times8=64

b) 11^2=11\times11=121

c) 26^2=26\times26=26\times20+26\times6=520+156=676

## Functional Skills: Multiplication Worksheet and Example Questions

### Multiplication E3

Entry Level 3NewOfficial PFS### Multiplication L1

FS Level 1NewOfficial PFS### Multiplication L2

FS Level 2NewOfficial PFS[responsive-flipbook id=”pfs_pocket_revision_guide_-_sample”]

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